Linux privilege escalation using Wildcard Injection
Wildcards are symbols which represent other characters. You can use them with any command such as the cat or rm commands to list or remove files matching a given criteria. There are others, but the one that is important to us right now is the * character, which matches any number of characters.
Linux privilege Escalation using the SUID Bit
The SUID bit is a flag on a file which states that whoever runs the file will have the privileges of the owner of the file. So, if you are student and the file is owned by root, then when you run that executable, the code runs with the permissions of the root user. The SUID bit only works on Linux ELF executables, meaning it does nothing if it's set on a Bash shell script, a Python script file, etc.
Docker is a software platform for building applications in small and lightweight execution environments called containers, which are isolated from other processes, operating system resources and kernel. Containers are assigned resources that no other process can access, and they cannot access any resources not explicitly assigned to them. The concept of containerization has been around for some time, until docker, an open source project launched in 2013, helped to popularize the technology. Originally built for Linux OS, Docker became a multiplatform solution and catalyzed the microservices-oriented approach in development.
ModSecurity Filter Evasion and Better Configuration
ModSecurity is a rule-based Web Application Firewall (WAF) which is most commonly deployed to provide protections against generic classes of vulnerabilities using the OWASP ModSecurity Core Rule Set (CRS). However, if instead of OWASP CRS the default (weaker) ruleset is used, then it can be circumvented in certain cases.